Tuesday, April 28, 2009

Book Review Presentations start

This Thursday, April 30 we will start the book reviews for our class. The reviews are oral presentations, but of course I expect a "hard" copy (or digital) from each student. Your "hard" copy does not have to be ready on Thursday. Your presentation should be in power point mode, but I'm more interested in the discussion phase than any thing else.

Following is the list of student whom I expect to present this Thursday. Please call me if you have any questions or concerns. The students to present this Thursday, April 30, but not necessarily in this order (I will ask for volunteers) are:

Patricia Barrios - SCSA - (Presented)
Tania Garcia - TAMUK - (Presented)
Jennifer Casanova - SCSA
Joe Hamon - TAMUK
Lizbeth Hernandez - SCSA
Krystleskye Limon - TAMUK - (Presented)
Roy Porter - SCSA
David Brott - TAMUK - (Presented)

The students schedule to present Thursday, May 7, but not necessarily in this order (I will ask for volunteers) are:

Shaun Springfiled - SCSA
Jacque Hutton - TAMUK
Linda Tomasini - SCSA
Michelle Leal - TAMUK
Katherine Valadez - SCSA
Michelle Leal - TAMUK
Brent Walker - SCSA
Sasha Rodriguez - TAMUK
Greg Stelfox - TAMUK - (Presented)

As a reminder.......here are our last three class dates.

• Thursday, April 30 (Class will meet). Selected students present book reviews. Selected final projects may be discussed. This is the day where we will let students give oral reviews of their books. Prepare for final exam. This is the last exam. It will be posted on Tuesday May 5 or earlier.

• Thursday, May 7: (Class will meet). Selected students present book reviews and discuss final projects.

• Thursday, May 14: (Class will meet). Final Exam and all final projects due. (If you have done this prior to this night, we don't have to meet).

Tuesday, April 21, 2009

Discussion for Chapters 19-24

Class, below is the discussion for Chapters 19-24. Please review.

Chap. 19: The Entertainment Media, 1900-present

Since 1900 entertainment has expanded its role in American society, and in the process it has introduced a number of changes into the lifestyle of the nation. As we draw farther away from the beginnings of the American recording and broadcasting industries, more historical work is being done on these areas of mass culture that have so affected the way people spend their leisure time today. Yet, many historians are still awed by the magic of music making and broadcasting, and they tend to hold a romanticized view of the industry. Others who were part of the industry, either in management, production, or as performers, write on their area of expertise, but with a hidden agenda: to vindicate themselves, to expose others, to brag about their accomplishments, or simply to bring up fond memories. Although historians have used a number of approaches in studying this phenomenon, they have been mainly interested in its development, its purpose, and its interaction with national culture.

1. By centering on how the entertainment industry evolved, have historians romanticized its history?

2. What social changes in American life help to explain the emergence of the star system in the silent film era?

3. How has the evolution of the entertainment mass media affected 20th-century American culture?

4. What connections can be seen between the new entertainment media that have appeared in the 20th century and previously existing ones?

5. Did the entertainment industry exist to provide and promote culture or to make money? If it existed to promote culture, then who decided what that culture was to consist of? Was the deciding force talent, origi¬nality, charisma, or money-making ability? If it existed to make money, then who decided which forms of entertainment would make money? What role did public opinion play in such decisions?

7. What, if any, major changes did the enter¬tainment media bring about in society?

Chap. 20: The Age of Mass Magazines, 1900-present

As mentioned with the questions for chapter 13, magazine history is a relatively new field. It is, however, one of the richest fields of media studies to explore, and the history of 20th-century magazines merits attention for many reasons. In this age of mass circulating media, magazines have both fourished and failed. This fact has attracted considerable attention among historians. Throughout the century, magazines have enjoyed a special place in American culture, but once again it appears that historians disagree about the nature of magazines and their connection to society in general. To grasp the historical debate about magazines in this century, it is necessary to address some basic questions.

1. How can the rise of mass circulating magazines be explained?

2. What difference does the ability of editors and publishers have on the success of particular magazines?

3. What has been the relationship between advertising and magazines?

4. How did the appearance of radio, and later of television, affect the mass magazine's potential from the points of view of both publishers and advertisers?

5. Why have some magazines managed to survive despite changes in the communication environment?

6. As with other mass media, the key question in magazine history deals with the essential nature of magazines. What was that nature? Were magazines essentially products of culture or of economic forces? Was their purpose, in the context of the 20th century, basically informational or literary? Or, was it mainly perceived as a form of entertainment?

Chap. 21: Modern Advertising

A large part of advertising history has been written by histori¬ans with a business, social, cultural, or political axe to grind — and often while the historians were on the way to doing something else. As a result, many traditional concerns of history have not been ad¬dressed; and a number of fundamental questions remain unanswered.

1. The most basic question is this: Is the history of adver¬tising the history of business and economics, or is it the story of culture and society or some combination of the two?

2. Is adver¬tising the history of an institution that has steadily improved or that has been constantly in need of reform? Or, as Marxists have ar¬gued, is it the political, social, and economic sys¬tems that must be reformed?

3. Can the history of the United States be told, as historians favorable to advertising have suggested, in terms of business ac¬tivities with an occasional hand from advertising?

4. Questions about historians’ perspectives raise questions about how methodological approaches have affected the writing of adver¬tising history. Has the Developmental approach relied too heavily on often minor changes in the advertising process to the exclusion of environmental factors? Has the use of a “Great Man” approach granted too much im¬portance to decision makers and not enough to evolution within the process?

5. Have historians credited too much power to advertising to manipulate the pub¬lic? What evidence would be adequate to demonstrate such influ¬ence?

6. Have historians spent too much time in either defending or attacking advertising, and too little in examining the process of ad¬vertising and its place in soci¬ety?

Chap. 22: Public Relations, 1900-present

The topic of public relations has concerned writers and thinkers since the early 1920s. Yet relatively little historical research has been conducted on the subject. Furthermore, the field has only re¬cently been accepted as a professional area of study.

Despite the lack of research, or perhaps because of it, historians disagree on several fundamental questions. While attempting to examine the origins of public relations, some historians maintain that the beginnings were during the period of the Roman Empire, and that the American Revolution led to public relations practition¬ers such as Samuel Adams, Patrick Henry, and Thomas Jefferson. Others state that the railroad industry in the early 1900s laid the foundation. Still other historians suggest that the field was not de¬fined until the 1920s and did not become an organized, widespread profession until the 1930s.

The confusion appears to arise from a lack of definition over the term public relations. There¬fore, historians have shown consider¬able disagreement in their def¬initions of the term and in their in-terpretations. They confront a number of questions.

1. The first question they face is, What is meant by the phrase public relations? Did public relations in some form or fashion ex¬ist during the Ro¬man Empire? Or, if the field is defined as a profes¬sional science, did it originate before the 1900s?

2. Furthermore, how can the historian properly delineate the ar¬eas covered by such an extensive subject as “public relations”? Such a broad subject is difficult to centralize and often overlaps into other areas such as politics and business man¬agement and into related areas such as press agentry, publicity, and advertising. Is it possi¬ble for the historian to separate the subject of “public relations” from those areas? Should areas such as publicity and business manage¬ment properly be a part of historical studies in public relations? Can such functions as distributing press releases and organizing spe¬cial events be included as a part of professional public relations, or are these activities merely publicity attempts?

3. What was the essential difference between public relations and pub¬licity?

4. Can the evolution of public relations be credited to particular individuals such as Bernays and Lee, or should it be attributed to the entire cultural en¬vironment?

5. In particular, what role did economic considerations play?

6. In attempting to answer that question, how can the historian determine the intent of American business leaders? Did they hon¬estly see the value of social responsibility, or did they adopt public relations simply as a profit-making tactic?

Chap. 23: The Media in Transition, 1945-1974

The advent of television was a landmark event in the history of mass communication in the post-1945 decades. Rapidly accepted by all sectors of the American population, it surpassed all other media as the most-used and most-believed source of information. In the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s, it became a major source of American perceptions of society and politics and of pressing national and international crises—by means of both its news and entertainment content. Despite its relative newness as a mass media, historians are confronting a number of questions abut its nature and role in society. They have also taken an interest in the effect it has had on other media. They have, moreover, found great significance in studying media performance during these decades, which involve events and movements that have left their imprint on American life in many ways.

1. In which public matters during these years did the news media acquit themselves with the best distinction? Why?

2. Did television raise or lower cultural standards?

3. Has television fulfilled its great expectations as an information medium, or do the natural tendencies of an intensely popular mass medium in a free market system prevent it from doing so?

4. Can historians continue to interpret television journalism without defining precisely what it is?

5. How did other media affect early television and how did television affect other media?

6. What was the essential nature of the journalistic media? Is they best explained in terms of professional journalism practices and progress, as some historians have argued, or as biased and ideological tools?

7. When did the news media perform best—when they operated in a bal¬anced, detached manner or when jour¬nalists viewed their role as adversaries of other established institu¬tions such as government or business? Should the media have been an adversary? From where did that concept arise—from the news media or from other institutions?

8. In a democratic society, what should have been the preferred role?

9. If one believes it is an adversary role, what is the basis for de¬termining that a professionalized press serves the interests of the public better than elective government rep¬resentatives do?

10. Should historians bring an ideological perspec¬tive to their study of the past? Is it possible for them not to do so?

11. If one accepts an ideological role as appropriate for the press, as liberal historians did for the post-1945 period, on what basis does one determine what the preferred ideology should be? Is there any reason to believe that a liberal ideology, the type advocated by the majority of media historians, should be preferred over a moderate or conservative one?

Chap. 24: The Contemporary Media, 1974-present

The recent past is a difficult and uncertain area for historical inquiry. Restrictions on records and the fact that some of the crucial sources that historians use have yet to materialize for these years make the study of this time less than complete. Moreover, the absence of sufficient time lapse and the attachment one has to present convictions and passions make it more difficult yet for historians to practice the canons associated with historical scholarship. In some cases, the use of historical analogy and the search for continuities help to overcome these difficulties. In some other cases, the concern that historians have had in trying to determine the nature of the journalistic media in a definable past period has guided them in probing that same proposition as it relates to recent years. Regardless, media historians display an intense interest in recent journalism history. While they have provided some understanding of the media in the last several decades and have suggested interesting questions about it, their interest encourages speculation about the nature of historical study.

1. In terms of his media relations, to which two previous presidents can Ronald Reagan be best compared?

2. How did the government's treatment of journalists in the Grenada invasion (1983) and in the Persian Gulf War (1991) resemble that in earlier 20th-century conflicts?

3. How does the criticism of the news media in the 1970s and 1980s resemble that of the press in earlier periods?

4. Does the essential nature of the media appear to be different in the 1980s from what it was in the 1960s? The 1920s? The 1890s?

5. What effect has historians’ interest or involvement in recent events had on their ability to explain the recent past?

6. Is it appropriate for histo¬rians to be more deeply motivated by their interest in the present than in the past? Can the past be studied fairly if the historians’ pri¬mary interest springs from the present? If historians are deeply motivated by their interest in the present and are influenced by their own times, is it possible to pro¬vide accurate assessments of recent events, or must we wait until a length of time has passed?

7. What must be done for historians to provide meaningful assessments of events that occurred during their own lifetime and in which they may have been seriously involved?

8. Since journalism is sometimes referred to as instant history, what can be gained by asking the following: What are the similarities and differences between journalism and history?

Thursday, April 16, 2009

Class, Thursday, April 16

First, class will meet today as scheduled. Next, thank you for your patience and understanding as we move toward the end of the semester. I would like to apologize for any inconvenience I may have caused because of the responsibilities I have as chair of the department at TAMUK and as a professor who took an extra load because of the university's inability to hire another instructor to help with other courses which I had to take on.

Now, we are nearing the end of the course. Here is our "suggested" schedule as I see it for the rest of the year. I will try to stick to it to the best of my ability. Again, I ask for your patience and understanding. Be aware, no one who has completed their assignments and has attended class regularly is in danger of failing this class. If you have any questions about this, please contact me at the office: 361-593-3401 or on my cell: 361-813-7808. If I don't answer, leave a message and I will get back with you as soon as possible; I promise.

Now, here is the schedule:

Thursday, April 16 - (Class will meet). Selected students were scheduled to present book reviews. However, this will be toward the end of class. The class today will cover lectures from Chapters 11-18. There are no more blog posting responses. All blogs from now on are reviews.

• Thursday, April 23 - (Class will not meet. I will be in Houston with the TAMUK Advertising Team at the District 10 National Student Advertising Competition sponsored by the American Advertising Federation). Blog assignments on chapters 20-25 will be posted for you to review. You will be asked to review postings on the current state of the media. Your Final Project is due on this date.

• Thursday, April 30 (Class will meet). Selected students present book reviews. Selected final projects may be discussed. This is the day where we will let students give oral reviews of their books. Prepare for final exam. This is the last exam. It will be posted on Tuesday My 5 and due on exam date (which is different for both campuses).

• Thursday, May 7: (Class will meet). Selected students present book reviews and discuss final projects.


Final Project: Write a biography of a longtime media professional—still working or retired—from one of our area media outlets. You can find some biographical details in city and county records or on website of newspapers or broadcast media outlets. Other information can come from friends, acquaintances, co-workers and relatives. Much of the information will come directly from interviews with your subject or with people who knew your subject. The professor will provide a list of potential subjects. In addition to finding out the details of your subject’s life and professional career, you’re also interested in learning how the business was conducted during the time your subject was working in the profession. What was it like? What experiences did your subject have? How has the profession changed? The biography should be at least 8 pages long, word-processed and double-spaced. You may submit this electronically. Deadline for final project is April 23. You MORE THAN LIKELY WILL be asked to discuss your project with the class, depending on class progress through the semester. This project is worth 20 percent of your final grade.

Book Review: One book review is required. The assignment will be both written and oral (presentation before the class). The written review must be submitted in MS Word format. The presentation can be a power point, slide or overhead project presentation OR JUST AN ORAL DISCUSSION IN CLASS. A list of approved books will be provided later this semester. The professor must “approve” the book. The book must be a biography or autobiography of a journalist or the history of a newspaper or other journalistic organization or the function of a certain group in journalism and communication (i.e. Hispanics in the media, the Chicano newspapers of the 20th century, the Black press in history, etc.). This is worth 20 percent of your final grade.

Monday, April 13, 2009

Chapter discussions for the past two weeks

Below are discussion pages and questions for Chapters 11-18. You do not have to answer the questions, but they will help you understand the chapter. Please review as we prepare for our test during the next two weeks. Dr. Flores.

Chap. 11: The Press and Industrial America, 1865-1883

Historians in recent years, like most other historians, tend to be in¬fluenced by the conditions of their own time. Recent trends toward concentrated media ownership have encouraged historians to examine the economic aspects of the media of the past. As a result, the press of the Industrial Age has attracted growing attention from historians who believe they can perceive during that time the real beginnings of the rapid growth of newspapers as big business. In their quest to understand the fundamentals of media operations, they have posed a number of questions deserving of attention; and yet a number of critical questions remain unanswered.

1. How did media business practices affect success in the period after the Civil War?

2. How did the growth of newspapers as businesses affect their relationship to “big business” and the wealthy?

3. How did big-city newspapers influence small-town papers?

4. Developmental historians have posed a variety of questions relating to the origin and practice of journalism techniques during the period. How did the interview begin, for example, and which journalist was most instrumental in developing practices such as more appealing newspaper appearance? Who were the most important figures in Industrial Journalism? How did they contribute to the evolution of the profession?

5. In attempting to answer such questions as the previous one, one must ask whether historians are influenced too much by conditions of today. Might historians be so concerned with changes of the past few years that their view of earlier times is clouded?

6. Once such fundamental questions about historical study are answered, one still is left with the major questions about the nature of the Industrial Press that historians have propounded. How did journalists think of themselves—as journalists, mere employees, or as reformers? Were their main considerations journalistic, ideological, or economic? Were they generally reform-minded or reactionary?

7. What factors influenced the media? Were they mainly journalistic ones, or were they environmental?

8. What impact did individual journalists have on the nature of the media? How did their impact compare to that of impersonal cultural forces?

Chap. 12: The Age of New Journalism, 1883-1900

The era of New Journalism has received substantial historical treatment, primarily because of the prominence of Pulitzer and Hearst and because of the excesses of Yellow Journalism. Historical interest has been increased by what appears to be a clear tie between those subjects and the Spanish-American War.

1. It is that interrelationship that gives rise to some of the most important ques¬tions that historians have asked about the period. What, for example, was the relationship between the press and the war? Were the yellow journals responsible, as some historians have claimed, for causing the war; or were they comparatively unimportant in the whole milieu of causes?

2. Although the question of press influence has been much debated, it is reasonably clear that the yellow journals promoted war. What was their motivation for doing so? Was it to free Cuba from the repressive rule of Spain, as some early historians argued, or was it simply to promote newspaper circulation, as others have claimed?

3. On domestic issues, what were the motivations? Were publishers such as Pulitzer and Hearst truly concerned about solving social problems, or were they unscrupulously using the problems for their own self-promotion and circulation building? Were they true social reformers or reactionary, profit-oriented businessmen?

4. Should the primary historical consideration of New Journalism be on such social issues that Progressive historians emphasized, or should historical study focus instead on the contributions that New Journalism made to advancing journalistic practices?

5. Is New Journalism best understood as the origin of modern journalism? If so, who or what forces provided the impetus for changes?

6. On the matter of newspaper practices, was sensationalized news really what the public wanted, or was that desire created by the press itself?

7. Did journalism progress with the use of sensationalism, or did sensationalism set journalism back?

8. Was sensationalism a natural outgrowth of new urban condi¬tions, or the shrewd approach of insightful journalists such as Pulitzer who used it to increase circulation and eventually enlarge the body of the American public who became serious newspaper readers?

9. Were the practices of New Journalism really an attempt to clean up society, or were they merely a means of increasing circulation?

10. What is the legacy of New Journalism?

Chap. 13: American Magazines, 1740-1900

The study of magazine history, a relative new field compared with some other areas of mass communication history, faces some of the handicaps of a young area. There is a need, for instance, for a com¬prehensive bibliography; more interpretive studies, especially those that explain the social mediating power of mass magazines; and more research into areas such as the development of religious and foreign-language periodicals. Despite the fact, however, that much work waits to be done, historians have raised a number of intriguing questions about the nature of magazines and the various influences operating on them.

1. What cultural forces influenced the content of magazines as they increased in number early in the 19th century, until about the 1830s?

2. What was the relationship between advertising and magazines? How did advertising shape the character of American women’s magazines? Did advertising dollars assure the health of these and other specialized magazines?

3. How can the mid 19th-century growth in women's magazines be explained?

4. Why did juvenile publications, religious ones in particular, flourish in the late 19th century?

5. What factors best account for the changes that appeared in popular and general magazines toward the end of the 19th century?

6. Were magazines essentially products of culture, literary vehicles, or eco¬nomic products?

7. How might historians use magazines to reconstruct the cultural contours of 19th-century America?

Chap. 14: The Development of Advertising, 1700-1900

The history of advertising as a part of the printed media can be traced back to the 17th century, and early in the 18th century ads began to appear in newspapers. Although much work remains to be done regarding the relationship between advertising and the mass media, inquiry into the historical record as it now stands can help one to grasp some of the fundamentals of that relationship.

1. What role did advertising play as a financial basis for early-19th-century newspapers?

2. Did P. T. Barnum play a role equal to that of industrial forces in changing 19th-century advertising?

3. Why did the nature of industrial change in the 19th century affect the nature of advertising in the press?

4. Were there diverse yet related cultural changes in late 19th-century America that affected advertising in the press?

5. Why did some late 19th-century press critics claim that advertising in the press had an "insidious" influence on journalism?

Chap. 15: The Emergence of Modern Media, 1900-1945

For historians of the early 20th century press, the paramount ques¬tion has been what determined the nature of the me¬dia. Progressive historians believed a class conflict between the rich and the masses was the essential factor, with wealthy owners too often subverting the press for their own benefit. Business historians argued to the contrary: that owners were men of high principle who had made major contributions to the quality of the press. Developmental historians tended to view changes in the press as a part of the natural progress of journalism, whereas Cultural historians reasoned that the nature of the media at any particular time was determined primarily by their environment.

1. How can the media of the period best be evaluated? (a) Did they lay the foundation for our modern concepts of journalism? (b) Were they primarily ideological instruments, controlled by conservative owners for their own benefit? (c) Or were the changes that took place primarily the result of powerful economic forces that transformed American society in general?

2. What role did individuals—as contrasted with great forces—play?

3. Were the owners themselves reactionary and interested only in profit, or were they also con¬cerned about making the news media more efficient and, as a re¬sult, better at performing the job of informing the public?

4. If the distinctive characteristic of the period was the increasing transformation of the media into big business, how does one account for the increasing professionalization and—some would say—liberalism of working journalists? How could both conservatism and liberal¬ism exist in the same field at the same time?

5. During the first half of the 20th century, how did women manage to play a larger role in journalism than they had previously, despite many barriers against them?

6. How did the early 20th-century cultural landscape influence the development of new mass media?

7. How did newspapers adjust to the appearance of new mass media?

8. What factors explain the growth of the African-American newspapers early in this century?

Chap. 16: The Media and Reform, 1900-1917

Among the various topics in media history, muckraking has at¬tracted the interest of more historians from outside mass communication than any other topic has. As a result, few topics have shown as much historiographical vitality as muckraking, and a number of questions central to the nature of muckraking remain the subjects of lively debate.

1. Were muckrakers, as the Progressive historians originally claimed, true liberal reformers with the correction of so¬cial ills foremost in their motives?

2. Is the view of Progressive historians overly romanticized be¬cause they agreed with the goals of the muckrakers?

3. Were muckrakers, as both Marxist and some Neo-Conservative historians argued, superficial in their understanding of problems and their proposals for solutions?

4. Is a Marxist critique valid in the face of the fact that the class struggle as proposed by Marxists never marked American history?

5. Were muckrakers really concerned, as Liberal historians have suggested, not primarily with solving problems but with re-establishing their position in society?

6. Is it possible for historians to apply psychoanalysis, which is the basis of the “status anxiety” the¬ory of Hofstadter and Mowry, to his¬torical subjects? If such analysis faces unreasonable dif¬ficulty, is there any basis for the status-anxiety explanation?

7. Were muckrakers—if they did base their motives and approaches on traditional values, as Liberal historians claimed—asserting principles, as some Neo-Conservative historians argued, that in the long run were the only truly effective means of bringing about reform?

Chap. 17: The Media and National Crises, 1917-1945

During the first half of the 20th century the nation and the media had to face some of the gravest crises in modern history. Media responses to these crises suggest basic questions about the relationship between the media and modern society and about the performance of the media in times of national emergency.

1. From what historical perspective does the author of the textbook chapter write? What is his ideological point of view?

2. Considering the enormity of the problems confronting the United States and the rest of the world during this period, how much consideration should be given to them when assessing the performance of the media?

3. Is it reasonable, as some journalist-historians have done, to evaluate the media by detached professional standards during such critical times? Or must historians assess media performance within the context of the time?

4. Similarly, is it proper for historians to critique media per¬formance, as some liberal historians have done, on the basis of liberal social ideology when such ideology was not the over-riding consideration for the media of the time?

5. When did the media during this modern critical period serve best—when they supported liberal ideology; when they joined the national effort to combat the problems the nation faced; or when they acted according to detached, professional news standards?

6. How, in the final analysis, are the media during the national crises of 1917-1945 to be judged: as advocates of social reform and liberal¬ism, as irresponsible and jingoistic propaganda tools, as a constructive force for combatting immense international threats to democracy, as servants of entrenched conservative interests, or as practitioners of high journalistic standards? How should media practitioners from 1917 to 1945 be judged—as dangerous propagandists, as constructive patriots, or as responsible professionals?

Chap. 18: Radio Comes of Age, 1900-1945

The history of American radio is still being written. In its compara¬tively short lifespan, it nevertheless has established itself as a legitimate and growing field of inquiry. As a result, new topics, methods, and interpretations have surfaced rapidly; and historians have raised a number of significant questions. The major questions fo¬cus on the essential nature of broadcasting and the development of the field.

1. Should broadcasting history be viewed mainly as the study of the origin, day-to-day practice, and progress of standard professional procedures and techniques? If not, how should it be viewed?

2. How appropriate is it to approach broad¬casting as just another form of journalism?

3. Since the Developmen¬tal approach gives special attention to the great individuals who contributed to radio practices, how would another interpretive per¬spective (such as the Cultural or Progressive view) affect the as¬sessment of those individuals?

4. How accurate were Progressive his¬torians in emphasizing economics as the primary factor in broadcasting history? How valid is it in any explanation of history to at¬tribute exclusive importance to any single factor?

5. How valid was the Progressive historians’ explaining such areas as broadcast ownership and regulation in terms of ideology? How did their own ideological viewpoints affect their explanation?

6. Aside from ideol¬ogy and economics, how accurate was Cultural historians’ view that the key to understanding radio was the relationship between radio and the surrounding environment?

7. How reasonable was their assumption that radio played a major influence in affecting the public’s attitudes and lifestyles? What type of evidence would be necessary for a historian to make such claims? Have Cultural historians done an adequate job of presenting the necessary evidence?

8. Along with such interpretive questions, historical study of radio also has raised a number of questions about the nature of historical research methods. How can the historian analyze oral and visual sources as primary documents? Is it possible to apply the methodology of print, rhetorical criticism, literary criticism, art, drama, or traditional history to the broadcast situation?

9. If the analysis of broadcast programming faces exceptional difficulties, what methods could be used?

10. If huge portions of broadcast material have been lost—as they have—how reasonable is it to expect that any historical study of radio will provide an accurate, credible explanation?

Thursday, April 9, 2009

History of J class Thursday, April 9, is blog night

The History of Journalism class will not meet Thursday, April 9. Please use the time to catch up with assignments. A new blog assignment will be posted Sunday but will not be due til Thursday. Please contact me if you have any questions. Thanks.
Dr. Manuel Flores

Tuesday, April 7, 2009

Book List

Below is a book list. You can choose one of these books for your book review project. The list is just a guide. You may choose a book of your own as long as it relates to communications/journalism....please call if you have any questions.
Dr. Manuel Flores

Acosta, Teresa Palomo and Winegarten, Ruthe Las Tejanas - 300 Years of History University of Texas Press 2003 0-292-70527-1
Acuna, Rodolfo Occupied America: A History of Chicanos 4th Edition Longman 2000 0-321-04485-1
Agee, Warren K.; Ault, Phillip H. and Emery, Edwin Maincurrents in Mass Communications Harper & Row, Publishers 1986 0-06-040178-8
Agrasanchez Jr., Rogelio Cine Mexico - Carteles de la Epoca Oro 1936-1956 Chronicle Books 2001 0-8118-3058-6
Alexander, Alison; Hanson, Jarice Taking Sides: Clashing Views in Mass Media and Society 9th Edition McGraw Hill 2007 0-07-351502-7
Alonzo, Armando C. Tejano Legacy: Rancheros and settlers in South Texas 1734-1900 University of New Mexico Press - Alburqerque 1998 0-8263-1897-5
Arant, David Perspectives: Ethics, Issues and controversies in Mass Media Coursewise Publishing 1997 0-395-96594-2
Arellano, Gustavo Ask a Mexican Scribner 2008 1-4165-4003-2 (pbk)
Arnold, Edmund C. and Krieghbaum, Hillier The Student Journalist - A Handbook for Staff and Advisor New York University Press 1963
Babb, Laura Longley Writing in Style: A New Perspective on the People and Trends of the Seventies Houghton Mifflin 1975
Babb, Laura Longley - Editor The Editorial Page Houghton Mifflin Company 1977 0-88475-005-1
Bacon, Jacqueline Freedom's Journal: The First African-American Newspaper Lexington Books 2007 0-7391-1894-3
Bacon, Wallace The Art of Interpretation - Second Edition Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc. 1972 0-03-088999-5
Barker, Ernest The Politics of Aristotle Oxford University Press 1975 0-19-500306-3
Barnet, Sylvan; Berman, Morton; Burton, William Eight Great Tragedies The New American Library 1957
Barrera, Aida Looking For Carrascolendas: From a Child's World to Award-Winning Television University of Texas Press: Austin 2001 0-292-70891-2
Baskin, Otis W.; Aronoff, Craig E. and Lattimore, Dan Public Relations - The Profession and the Practice-Fourth Edition (Instructor's Manual) McGraw Hill 1997 0-697-20123-6
Beebe, Steven A. and Masterson, John T. Communicating in Small Groups - Seventh Edition A and B 2003 0-205-35956-6
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