Friday, May 22, 2009

Check out for the year - thanks

This is to all the class members...Just a note to say thank you for providing for an interesting, at time stimulating, and even fun experience this past semester. The class, at the end, pulled through, at least most of you did. Your end-of-year-project ans book reviews were excellent and worthy of an upper-level course. Our main problem was for you to get adjusted to a "blog" type class and for me to get used to SA students sending me material which I found was very hard to get back to them....I apologize if this caused a problem for some of you. However, I would like to thank you for your patience and hard work (again, most of you) and wish you the best. Please contact me if there is anything I can do for you in my capacity as a professor of chair of the Department of Communications Theatre Arts at Texas A&M-Kingsville....again, thanks
Bueno bye, y suerte
Dr. Manuel Flores

Wednesday, May 13, 2009

Final Exam - Thursday, may 14 - 6:40 p.m.

Just a reminder....all assignments are due during our Final Exam schedule date, Thursday, May 14, at 6:40 p.m. in Cousins Hall Room 121 and we will have live feed to San Antonio. Please turn in all pertinent material at this time, including final exam. I will not accept any thing after this class. None of you at this point qualify for an incomplete. Also, congratulations to our two graduates from this class this semester - Michelle Leal and Joseph Hamon. Good luck. It was a pleasure having you in class.

Tuesday, May 5, 2009

Final Project Guidelines - One More Time

In case you have forgotten, your final project is already due. Here are the guidelines, again. I will accept the paper through next Wednesday. No later. After that, it is a grade of zero. Expect points taken off for tardiness.

Final Project: Write a biography of a longtime media professional—still working or retired—from one of our area media outlets. You can find some biographical details in city and county records or on website of newspapers or broadcast media outlets. Other information can come from friends, acquaintances, co-workers and relatives. Much of the information will come directly from interviews with your subject or with people who knew your subject. The professor will provide a list of potential subjects. In addition to finding out the details of your subject’s life and professional career, you’re also interested in learning how the business was conducted during the time your subject was working in the profession. What was it like? What experiences did your subject have? How has the profession changed? The biography should be at least 8 pages long, word-processed and double-spaced. By the beginning of class March 23, turn in a word-processed proposal including your subject’s name, the name of the news outlet he or she worked for and the approximate dates of his or her career. You can also include any other information you have learned up to that point about your subject’s career. By April 16, you will give the professor a written update and sample paper. You may submit this electronically. Deadline for final project is April 23. You may or may not be asked to discuss your project with the class, depending on class progress through the semester. This project is worth 20 percent of your final grade.

Here are some guidelines

Please let me know your choice as soon as possible. Please follow the guidelines attached. I will need a "hard copy" (SA you can email).


The paper will be written in MLA style with end notes, works cited and a bibliography. You must have at least four major sources (i.e. books, magazines, reviews or biographies)

Personal interviews may count as a source.

Please do not use Wikipedia or encyclopedia and please do not just cut and paste. Cite your sources. Please include a cover sheet. The type must be no bigger than 12 points. Double spaced with notations (Smith, 35) in copy.

Some Suggestions:
(1)Go to the website of the different television networks and choose one of their reports or anchors to get an idea for your subject. Example: Natalie Morales, Oprah Winfrey, Katie Couric, John Quiñones, Jorge Ramos, Geraldo Rivera, María Celeste Arrarás,
(2)Select a news personality from a local television or radio station.
(3)Select a reporter from a local daily.
(4)Pick a well-known news personality you want to learn more about.

Please organize your report into five sections. The sections are:
(1)Introduction: to include the reason why you chose the personality.
(2)Biography: A brief resume of your personality’s career, to include place of birth, parents, education, influences in their lives and their current status in their profession and/or life,
(3)Impact: A brief review of your personality’s main impact on journalism, film, etc. This should list awards and some of the significant achievements in his or her field.
(4)A review of the subject work and career would be nice.
(5) Conclusion: A brief review of what you have written and how you feel your personality has impacted Hispanics in the Media.

Good luck. Dr. Flores

Sunday, May 3, 2009

Final Exam

Here is the final exam. Please complete it as soon as possible. Cal me if you have any questions.

History of Journalism
Final Exam


I. Please circle, highlight or mark the correct answer.

Chapter 8

1. The first anti-slavery publications in the country appeared around:

(a) the end of the American Revolution, (b) 1817, (c) slave camps,
(d) western New York, (e) 1861.

2. William Lloyd Garrison’s Liberator:

(a) was an instant success, (b) never had a mass circulation,
(c) appealed only to whites, (d) contained only the work of white writers,
(e) was moderate in tone.

3. The first black newspaper in the country was:

(a) the Chicago Tribune, (b) the Liberator, (c) Freedom’s Journal,
(d) the Colored American, (e) the Afro-American.

4. The best-known “Fire-Eater” was:

(a) J.E.B. Stuart, (b) Frederick Jackson Turner,
(c) the governor of Virginia, (d) Robert Barnwell Rhett,
(e) hanged for spying for the North.
5. The Liberator editor who urged the immediate emancipation of the slaves was :

(a) W. E. B. DuBois, (b) Jonathan Barnwell, (c) John L. Sullivan,
(d) Douglas Frederick, (e) William Lloyd Garrison.

6. The editor of the North Star and the best-known black man in America at the time was:

(a) John D. Rockefeller, (b) John Brown, (c) Frederick Douglass,
(d) Homer Elwood, (e) Nat Turner.

Chapter 9

7. Of special prominence among the Civil War reporters was a group from the North known as the:

(a) Lincoln League, (b) Bohemian Brigade, (c) Lightening Club, (d) Patriotic Platoon, (e) Peep o’day Boys.

8. In reporting the Civil War, the major northern newspapers placed an emphasis on:

(a) accuracy, (b) news about slaves, (c) speed in coverage,
(d) fairness to all points of view, (e) stories about sex and violence.

9. Southern newspapers during the Civil War were plagued by:

(a) grasshoppers, (b) abolitionists, (c) manpower shortages,
(d) women suffragists, (e) an overabundance of news.

10. Among the leading illustrated publications covering the Civil War was:

(a) Field and stream, (b) Battlefield Illustrated, (c) Saturday Evening Post, (d) Photo Review, (e) Harper’s Weekly.

11. The reporter whose story about the Battle of Antietam is known as one of the best reports of the Civil War was:

(a) Thomas Nast, (b) Ernie Pyle, (c) Jane Grey Swisshelm,
(d) George Smalley, (e) Stephen Crane.

12. Mathew Brady became famous for his Civil War:

(a) battle reports, (b) drawings, (c) poems, (d) cartoons, (e) photographs.

Chapter 10

13. The first American Indian newspaper was the:

(a) Indian Times, (b) Cherokee Phoenix, (c) Okefenokee News,
(d) Oklahoma Eagle, (e) Cochise Chronicle.

14. The most prominent advocate of westward migration from Atlantic seaboard cities was:

(a) William Lloyd Garrison, (b) Benjamin Day, (c) James Gordon Bennett,
(d) Henry Raymond, (e) Horace Greeley.

15. The Tombstone, Ariz., newspaper that was noted for its coverage of controversies involving cowboys and business interests was the:

(a) Earp Chronicle, (b) Epitaph, (c) Arizona Marker,
(d) Arizona Argus, (e) El Boracho de Arizona

16. The first printing that was done in the Western Hemisphere, on a press set up in 1535, was:

(a) part of an effort to promote the Colombian Revolution, (b) in Ontario, Canada,
(c) in defiance of Portuguese authority, (d) in the midst of the Argentina gold rush, (e) in the Spanish language in what is now Mexico City.

17. Along with Mark Twain, one of the best known humorists of frontier journalism was:

(a) Ralph McGill, (b) Damon Runyon, (c) James Thurber,
(d) Garrison Keillor, (e) Bill Nye.

18. Probably the biggest news event of the 19th century involving American Indians was the:

(a) Wounded Knee massacre, (b) Battle of the Little Big Horn,
(c) execution of Geronimo, (d) defeat of Sitting Bull at Manassas,
(e) adoption of the Indian Removal Treaty of 1888.

Chapter 11

19. In the 1870s the pre-eminent model of personal journalism was the editor of the New York Sun noted for his interesting writing style, he was:

(a) Joseph Pulitzer, (b) Ernest Pyle, (c) Charles Dana,
(d) James G. Blaine, (e) Chester Arthur.

20. Many publishers in the 1870s and 1880s believed that newspapers had freed themselves from the influence of politicians only to come under the influence of

(a) chain newspaper owners, (b) local vigilante groups, (c) local crime syndicates, (d) social reformers, (e) advertisers.

21. The corrupt political machine exposed by the New York Times was the:

(a) Albany Regency, (b) Know-Nothings, (c) Teapot Club,
(d) Tweed Ring, (e) Firemen’s Assurance Association.

22. In the 1870s the arrangement by which reporters were paid according to the length of their stories was known as the:

(a) space system, (b) pay-as-you-write rate, (c) no-words/no-pay plan,
(d) reporting beat scale, (e) cooperative rate.

Chapter 12

23. The fast typesetting machine invented by Ottmar Mergenthaler was the:

(a) Telecompositor, (b) Offsetter, (c) Typomatic, (d) Linotype, (e) Fontgraphic.

24. The newspaper that Joseph Pulitzer bought in 1883 and turned into a huge success was the:

(a) Philadelphia Inquirier, (b) Boston Star, (c) Washington Post,
(d) New York World, (e) Los Angeles Examiner.

25. The newspaper sensationalism of the 1890s that was characterized by such features as scare headlines and bold display of news was known as :

(a) muckraking, (b) rumor mongering, (c) yellow journalism,
(d) Gonzo Journalism (e) tabloid journalism.

26. The journalistic giant who is usually credited with founding “New Journalism” was:

(a) Horace Greeley, (b) Samuel Hopkins Adams, (c) Theodore Roosevelt,
(d) Grover Cleveland Alexander, (e) Joseph Pulitzer.

27. The publisher of the New York Journal who especially emphasized what he called “jounalism of action” was:

(a) Horace Greeley, (b) William Randolph Hearst, (c) Grover Cleveland Alexander,
(d) Samuel Hopkins Adams, (e) Theodore Dreiser.

28. The war that newspapers sometimes are blamed for helping start in 1898 was :

(a) the Mexican War, (b) World War I, (c) the Spanish-American War,
(d) the Crimean War, (e) the Boer War. (f) The Texas Revolution

29. The cheap books, often about adventures in the American West, that were especially popular in the late 1800s were known as:

(a) yellow westerns, (b) penny fiction, (c) pulp stories, (d) dime novels, (e) Babcock’s books.

Chapter 13

30. One of the leading magazine publishing centers in 18th-century America was:

(a) Richmond, (b) Philadelphia, (c) Pittsburgh, (d) Washington, D. C., (e) Trenton.

31. The “ground-breaking” pioneer publication in sports journalism appearing in 1829 was:

(a) the Saturday Evening Post, (b) the American Bicycling Journal,
(c) Sports Illustrated, (d) American Turf Register and Sporting Magazine,
(e) Readers’ Digest.

32. The first American magazine to reach a circulation of a million was:

(a) Time, (b) Sports Illustrated, (c) Ladies Home Journal,
(d) Child’s Weekly Visitor, (e) Gentleman’s Leisure.

33. Amelia Bloomer published Lily, the first American

(a) horticultural magazine, (b) woman’s suffrage magazine, (c) woman’s fashion magazine, (d) woman’s home magazine, (e) gardening magazine.

34. By the mid 19th century the center of magazine publishing was:

(a) Boston, (b) New York, (c) Philadelphia, (d) Chicago, (e) Washington, D. C.

35. Near the end of the 19th century, free-lance writers for magazines were known as:

(a) space writers, (b) literary hacks, (c) magazinists, (d) writers for hire

Chapter 14

36. The leading colonial figure in improving advertising was :

(a) James Madison, (b) Paul Revere, (c) Benjamin Franklin,
(d) Cotton Mather, (e) Albert Lasker. (f) George Washington

37. The owner of the New York Ledger who began to publish stories and advertising aimed directly at women was :

(a) Joseph Pulitzer, (b) Thomas Acquinas, (c) James Buchanan,
(d) William Howard Russell, (e) Robert Bonner.

38. One of the most important developments in advertising in the middle of the 19th century was the appearance of:

(a) in-house art directors, (b) four-color newspaper ads, (c) advertising charge accounts,
(d) advertising agencies, (e) local advertiser-publisher associations.

39. The originator of the practice of “space-wholesaling” was:

(a) Robert Lincoln, (b) George P. Rowell, (c) Robert B. Rhett,
(d) Barnard Montgomery, (e) X. Hagan Mitchell (f) Volney Palmer

40. The pioneer promotional genius who had great success with such entertainment acts as “Tom Thumb” and Jenny Lind was:

(a) born in Brazil, rather than Washington, D.C., as he claimed,
(b) Lincoln Levy, the grandson of George Washington,
(c) P.T. Barnum,
(d) born on July 4, 1776,
(e) Thomas X. Jefferson.

41. The pioneer advertising “agent” normally is considered to have been:

(a) Braxton Bragg, (b) Horatio Seymour, (c) William Westmoreland,
(d) James K. Polk, (e) Volney Palmer. (f) George Rowell

Chapter 15

42. Among American media in the first few years of the 20th century, newspapers, according to the textbook, could be characterized as:

(a) king, (b) declining in audience share, (c) the weakest of the three major media,
(d) the product of immigration, (e) falling behind the times.
43. The most famous newspaper photograph of the 1920s:

(a) showed the electrocution of Ruth Snyder,
(b) brought national attention to the conditions of the Dust Bowl,
(c) was shot with a miniature “Brownie” camera,
(d) was of the wreck of the Titanic,
(e) helped bring about the impeachment of President Warren Harding.

44. One of the prominent trends in newspaper ownership in the 20th century was:

(a) an arrangement in which most owners wrote their editorials,
(b) a decline in the selling price of newspaper companies,
(c) takeover by foreign investors,
(d) the growth of chain newspapers,
(e) a decline in absentee ownership.

45. A new approach to news coverage that appeared during the New Deal was:

(a) beat reporting, (b) interpretative reporting, (c) international correspondence, (d) area-saturation, (e) the Schlieffen plan.

46. A new newspaper design that became popular in the 1920s was:

(a) modular layout, (b) vertical layout, (c) the integrated multi-box,
(d) four-cover color, (e) the tabloid.

47. A journalistic practice that gained increasing nationwide acceptance in the first part of the 20th century was:

(a) subjectivism, (b) ambush interviewing, (c) New Journalism,
(d) objectivity, (e) story inversion.

Chapter 16

48. The person who gave the name “muckraking” to reform journalism was :

(a) President Theodore Roosevelt, (b) Charles Anderson Dana,
(c) Sen. William Bartlett of Oklahoma, (d) Gov. Huey Long of Louisiana,
(e) Sarah Mills Ogden. (f) Ronald Reagan

49. Usually credited with starting the muckraking movement was:

(a) Grover Cleveland, (b) a group of writers known as the Boston Rakes,
(c) Nelson Rockefeller, (d) Minneapolis mayor Robert McCormick,
(e) Ida Tarbell’s exposé of Standard Oil.

50. The book that exposed the nauseating conditions of the meat-packing industry was Upton Sinclair’s

(a) Chicago Exposed, (b) The Stockyards, (c) Silent Spring,
(d) Cattle Chattel, (e) The Jungle. (f) The Miracle Woker

51. Muckraking was part of the:

(a) era of Yellow Journalism, (b) patent medicine industry’s efforts to forestall regulation,
(c) Progressive movement, (d) U.S. Senate’s efforts to “shame the cities,”
(e) tabloid journalism movement.

52. The leading muckraking magazine was:

(a) Life, (b) McClure’s, (c) Reader’s Digest, (d) Henrietta’s, (e) Spotlight.

Chapter 17

53. The Chicago Tribune reporter who was aboard a ship that a German submarine sank in 1917 and wrote a first-hand account of the attack was:

(a) P. T. Beauregard, (b) Allan “Submarine” Smith, (c) Floyd Gibbons,
(d) Frederick Blivens, (e) Henry “Hot Spot” Spragens.

54. The editor of the militant black newspaper The Crisis was:

(a) Frederick Douglass, (b) Eldridge Cleaver, (c) Jacques Zimmerman,
(d) Westbrook Pegler, (e) W.E.B. DuBois. (f) Eldridge Cleaver

55. The American reporter who covered the Russian Revolution, became a Bolshevik supporter, wrote the book Ten Days That Shook the World, and was the subject of the movie 1981 Reds was:

(a) David Rafshoon, (b) Philip S. Ramsey, (c) Harold “Red” Reasoner,
(d) Whitelaw Reeves, (e) John Reed. (f) Dan Rather

56. The organization headed by George Creel that helped to mobilize public support of the American effort during World War I was the:

(a) War Publicity Office, (b) War Correspondents Group, (c) American Morale Association,
(d) Committee on Public Information, (e) War News Agency.

57. The government agency during World War II that provided government publicity and was headed by Elmer Davis was the:

(a) War Coverage Committee, (b) Office of War Information,
(c) Military Correspondence Committee, (d) War News Agency,
(e) United States News Bureau.

Chapter 18

58. The best-known early experimenter with radio technology was:

(a) Eric Severeid, (b) John J. Pershing, (c) Guglielmo Marconi, (d) Herbert Hoover

59. The pioneer executive who developed the NBC network was:

(a) David Sarnoff, (b) Aaron Spelling, (c) Henry Harrison Ford, (d) George Creel,

60. Commercial radio’s broadcasting of sports:

(a) was hampered by the Chicago Black Sox scandal,
(b) began in the 1920s,
(c) was limited to one hour a day during World War II,
(d) was suspended after boxer Jesse Jenkins died in a fight in 1932,
(e) was suspended for one year after the payola scandals.

61. The event in 1912 that catapulted radio technology into national prominence was the:

(a) 1912 baseball World Series,
(b) presidential election between Taft and Wilson,
(c) sinking of the Titanic,
(d) Pullman strike,
(e) broadcast of Caruso’s Chicago performance in Candide.

62. The first scheduled radio broadcast normally is considered to have been KDKA’s broadcast of:

(a) FDR’s fireside chats, (b) bombing attacks on London,
(c) the Army-Navy football game of 1914, (d) the crash of the Hindenburg,
(e) the 1920 presidential election returns. (f) Local news mainly.

63. The rule that broadcasting must operate in the “public interest, convenience and necessity” was established:

(a) through the efforts of lobbyists for women’s right to vote,
(b) to prevent advertisers from monopolizing the airwaves,
(c) as part of the Sherman Antitrust Act,
(d) by the Radio Act of 1927,
(e) at the request of the NAACP.

64. Edwin H. Armstrong invented:

(a) FM radio, (b) the vacuum tube, (c) the radio news program, (d) Stereo technology

65. What is highly regarded as radio’s most significant and memorable event occurred when:

(a) the Titanic sunk in 1927.
(b) Pearl Harbor was attacked in 1941
(c) Orson Welles broadcast of H.G. Wells’ “War of the World” in a radio play on Oct. 30, 1938.
(d) President’s Roosevelt’s soothing “Fireside Chats” during the Great Depression.
(e) Eric Severeid’s stellar reporting from Europe during WW II.

66. All but which of the following is considered one of radio’s all-time newsmen and commentators during its heyday?

(a) Edward R. Morrow, (b) Roy Larsen (c) Lowell Thomas
(d) Walter Winchell (e) Will Rogers (f) Hans Von Kaltenburg

67. The man who dubbed himself as “The Father of Radio” was:

(a) Philo Farnsworth, (b) David Sarnoff, (c) Samuel D. Morse, (d) Lee De Forrest

68. Programming in they heyday of radio was:

(a) national in scope, much like TV now,
(b) included mainly local radio stations,
(c) was controlled by the govdernment,
(d) was far superior to today’s satellite banter and programming.

Chapter 19

69. The first newspaper comic strip was:

(a) banned from New York City’s public schools,
(b) “Little Orphan Annie,”
(c) later published in book form titled The Adventures of the Bowery Boys,
(d) “Captains Courageous,”
(e) “The Yellow Kid.”

70. The first disc jockey radio program:

(a) appeared in the 1960s,
(b) was Al Jarvis’ Make Believe Ballroom,
(c) was banned because of profanity,
(d) used only live music,
(e) failed because record companies refused to let their music be played on the radio.
(f) was Dick Clark’s American Bandstand

71. The earliest movie theaters for showing films were called:

(a) vaudevillas, (b) paradisios, (c) movie palaces, (d) nickelodeons, (e) cinema halls.

72. Most of the basic film techniques used today were developed:

(a) during the silent film era,
(b) during World War II,
(c) during the 1960s and 1970s,
(d) as a result of new technologies associated with television,
(e) as a result of space age technology.

73. A major breakthrough for African Americans in entertainment came in 1968 when the barrier against blacks starring in their own TV shows was broken by:

(a) Bill Cosby, (b) Paul Robeson, (c) Jackie Robinson, (d) Diahann Carroll,

74. The great singer whose recording in 1902 opened recorded music for classical music was:

(a) Marian Anderson,
(b) Leonard Bernstein,
(c) Enrico Caruso,
(d) Bing Crosby,
(e) Florence Nightingale.
(f) Erasmo Seguro

75. The first full-length “talkie” film starred:

(a) Elizabeth Taylor in “Giant,”
(b) Bing Crosby in “Navidad Blance,”
(c) W. C. Fields in “You’re Kidding!”
(d) Greta Garbo in “Burlesquse,”
(e) Al Jolson in “The Jazz Singer,”
(f) Ramon Navarro in “Ben Hur.”

76. The advent of television as a popular medium was delayed by:

(a) the popularity of the radio in the 1930s,
(b) World War II,
(c) the World’s Fair of 1939,
(d) the tensions of the Cold War,
(e) censorship.

77. One of the defining elements of the 1950s was:

(a) The convergence of radio stars to TV stars, instantly.
(b) The slapstick humor of radio was great for TV.
(c) The emergence of rock ‘n’ roll and Elvis Presley
(d) The Beattles rock invasion

78. The first national network or any kind, radio or television, was established by:

(a) RCA, (b)ABC, (c) Mutual, (d) CBS, (d) Humble

Chapter 20

78. In 1900, the magazine that had built up the largest circulation in the nation by using “success stories” was:

(a) losing almost $1,000,000 per issue,
(b) changing its emphasis to literature,
(c) Frank Leslie’s Illustrated Weekly,
(d) sold to the Harper Brothers publishing house,
(e) McClure’s.

79. The publisher who founded both Ladies Home Journal and Saturday Evening Post was:

(a) Joseph Pulitzer, (b) Cyrus Curtis, (c) William Randolph Hearst, (d) Hope Thompson Rush

80. Reader’s Digest was founded in 1922 :

(a) to espouse prohibition,
(b) as a tax shelter for the Rockefellers,
(c) to support the political goals of Nelson Algren,
(d) by the Jensen brothers as a means of supplementing their small printing income,
(e) by college dropout DeWitt Wallace.

81. The photo-oriented magazine introduced in 1935 was :

(a) Picture Weekly, (b) Parade, (c) Pageant, (d) Life, (e) Family Weekly.

82. The magazine founded in 1923 by Henry Luce and Briton Hadden with an emphasis on brief news items was:

(a) Time, (b) People, (c) Reader’s Digest, (d) Newsweek, (e) New Yorker.

83. In the 1950s and 1960s, the economic problems that mass magazines were facing were caused primarily by:

(a) miscalculations of production costs,
(b) television’s competition for advertising,
(c) a prolonged national recession,
(d) rising salaries for corporate executives,
(e) declining circulation numbers.

Chapter 21

84. The three “dimensions” of advertising that have been most important in modern advertising were:

(a) originated by P.T. Barnum,
(b) wealth, production, and consumption,
(c) codified by the 1923 Advertising Code of Ethics,
(d) economic, communicative, and societal,
(e) incorporated into federal regulations in 1917 by the Accuracy in Advertising Law.
(f) 1. We want your money, 2. Money is king, 3. Invest their money well.

85. John E. Kennedy (not the president) popularized the approach to advertising that was known as:

(a) point of sale, (b) salesmanship in print, (c) subliminal seduction, (d) prosperity appeal.

86. During the Great Depression, advertising :

(a) increased by almost 200%,
(b) was blamed by some critics for the economic problems,
(c) was eliminated from daytime radio programs,
(d) emphasized escapism rather than realism,
(e) avoided referring to the severe conditions that most consumers faced.

87. The Lord & Thomas executive who many historians consider to be the father of modern advertising was:

(a) P.T. Barnum, (b) Herbert Hoover, (c) George Creel, (d) Doyle Ogilvy, (e) Albert Lasker.

88. Claude Hopkins’ “shot from guns” slogan for Quaker puffed rice was an early example of an advertising approach known as:

(a) unique selling proposition,
(b) acceptable exaggeration,
(c) imagery manipulation,
(d) soft-sell,
(e) mood-creation technique.

89. In 1911 Printer’s Ink magazine proposed a model statute, that was widely adopted, to:

(a) standardize magazine advertising rates
(b) control false and deceptive advertising,
(c) standardize ink colors in magazine advertisements,
(d) regulate advertising agency contracts,
(e) codify state laws regulating national advertisers.

Chapter 22

90. The person usually considered “the Father of Public Relations” was :

(a) Ivy Lee, (b) P. T. Barnum, (c) Cecil B. DeMille, (d) Ronald Reagan, (e) George Patton.

91. Among the early presidents to stress publicity was :

(a) U. S. Grant, (b) Grover Cleveland, (c) Theodore Roosevelt, (d) Benjamin Harrison

92. The influential public relations practitioner who began using psychology in his work and tried to raise the ethical standards of PR activities was :

(a) Sigmund Freud, (b) Will Rogers, (c) Joseph Pulitzer, (d) Edward Bernays,

Chapter 23

93. The best-known and most distinguished of the early television journalists was:

(a) Marguerite Higgins, (b) Will Rogers, (c) Edward R. Murrow, (d) William T. Stead.

94. In the 1950s, the rise of Senator Joseph R. McCarthy and “McCarthyism” and the communist scare showed that:

(a) a public figure could gain notoriety without media attention,
(b) to gain notoriety one had to own media properties,
(c) the uncritical media could be manipulated,
(d) the press was overly critical of public figures,
(e) the radio was more important than newspapers in reporting Washington news.

95. The documents published by the press that indicated that the Defense Department may not have been frank in revealing its intentions in Vietnam were:

(a) leaked by Gen. William Westmoreland,
(b) known as the Pentagon Papers,
(c) accidentally thrown into a wastepaper basket by a secretary,
(d) provided to newspapers by a Vietnam embassy official,
(e) the Johnson Directives.

96. The CBS program on Vietnam that created the greatest furor:

(a) was underwritten by the Vietnamese government,
(b) was “The Selling of the Pentagon,”
(c) resulted in CBS having its broad-casting license revoked,
(d) violated the “Fairness in Broadcasting Doctrine,”
(e) was See It Now.

Chapter 24

97. Cable News Network (CNN) revolutionized the news industry when it was launched in 1980:

(a) as a subsidiary of CBS,
(b) by USA Today,
(c) to compete with an international television news cable system begun by the Soviet Union,
(d) to provide 24-hour coverage of the summer Olympics,
(e) by Ted Turner.

98. During Ronald Reagan’s presidency, journalists protested:

(a) Reagan’s preemption of evening news slots for his televised speeches to the nation,
(b) government restrictions on coverage of the invasion of Grenada,
(c) the Super Bowl’s preemption of evening news time slots,
(d) Reagan’s refusal to hold press conferences,
(e) Reagan’s efforts to eliminate the Fairness Doctrine.

Chapter 25

99. In the 2000 presidential election:

(a) television networks were criticized for questionable announcements of the winner on election night,
(b) the New York Times for the first time in its history endorsed the Republican candidate,
(c) NBC was criticized for pre-empting a presidential debate to televise the baseball World Series, (d) Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi served as a commentator on CNN,
(e) Disney Chairman Michael Eisenstein was criticized for distributing programming favoring third-party candidate Ralph Nader.

100. The CBS news anchor who was widely criticized in 2004 for a report on 60 Minutes Wednesday dealing George Bush’s service in the Air National Guard was:

(a) Peter Jennings,
(b) Katie Couric,
(c) Dan Rather,
(d) Walter Cronkite,
(e) Ted Koppel.

Have a Nice Summer!
Don’t forget to register soon for Summer 09 and Fall 09 Courses

Dr. Manuel Flores

Tuesday, April 28, 2009

Book Review Presentations start

This Thursday, April 30 we will start the book reviews for our class. The reviews are oral presentations, but of course I expect a "hard" copy (or digital) from each student. Your "hard" copy does not have to be ready on Thursday. Your presentation should be in power point mode, but I'm more interested in the discussion phase than any thing else.

Following is the list of student whom I expect to present this Thursday. Please call me if you have any questions or concerns. The students to present this Thursday, April 30, but not necessarily in this order (I will ask for volunteers) are:

Patricia Barrios - SCSA - (Presented)
Tania Garcia - TAMUK - (Presented)
Jennifer Casanova - SCSA
Joe Hamon - TAMUK
Lizbeth Hernandez - SCSA
Krystleskye Limon - TAMUK - (Presented)
Roy Porter - SCSA
David Brott - TAMUK - (Presented)

The students schedule to present Thursday, May 7, but not necessarily in this order (I will ask for volunteers) are:

Shaun Springfiled - SCSA
Jacque Hutton - TAMUK
Linda Tomasini - SCSA
Michelle Leal - TAMUK
Katherine Valadez - SCSA
Michelle Leal - TAMUK
Brent Walker - SCSA
Sasha Rodriguez - TAMUK
Greg Stelfox - TAMUK - (Presented)

As a are our last three class dates.

• Thursday, April 30 (Class will meet). Selected students present book reviews. Selected final projects may be discussed. This is the day where we will let students give oral reviews of their books. Prepare for final exam. This is the last exam. It will be posted on Tuesday May 5 or earlier.

• Thursday, May 7: (Class will meet). Selected students present book reviews and discuss final projects.

• Thursday, May 14: (Class will meet). Final Exam and all final projects due. (If you have done this prior to this night, we don't have to meet).

Tuesday, April 21, 2009

Discussion for Chapters 19-24

Class, below is the discussion for Chapters 19-24. Please review.

Chap. 19: The Entertainment Media, 1900-present

Since 1900 entertainment has expanded its role in American society, and in the process it has introduced a number of changes into the lifestyle of the nation. As we draw farther away from the beginnings of the American recording and broadcasting industries, more historical work is being done on these areas of mass culture that have so affected the way people spend their leisure time today. Yet, many historians are still awed by the magic of music making and broadcasting, and they tend to hold a romanticized view of the industry. Others who were part of the industry, either in management, production, or as performers, write on their area of expertise, but with a hidden agenda: to vindicate themselves, to expose others, to brag about their accomplishments, or simply to bring up fond memories. Although historians have used a number of approaches in studying this phenomenon, they have been mainly interested in its development, its purpose, and its interaction with national culture.

1. By centering on how the entertainment industry evolved, have historians romanticized its history?

2. What social changes in American life help to explain the emergence of the star system in the silent film era?

3. How has the evolution of the entertainment mass media affected 20th-century American culture?

4. What connections can be seen between the new entertainment media that have appeared in the 20th century and previously existing ones?

5. Did the entertainment industry exist to provide and promote culture or to make money? If it existed to promote culture, then who decided what that culture was to consist of? Was the deciding force talent, origi¬nality, charisma, or money-making ability? If it existed to make money, then who decided which forms of entertainment would make money? What role did public opinion play in such decisions?

7. What, if any, major changes did the enter¬tainment media bring about in society?

Chap. 20: The Age of Mass Magazines, 1900-present

As mentioned with the questions for chapter 13, magazine history is a relatively new field. It is, however, one of the richest fields of media studies to explore, and the history of 20th-century magazines merits attention for many reasons. In this age of mass circulating media, magazines have both fourished and failed. This fact has attracted considerable attention among historians. Throughout the century, magazines have enjoyed a special place in American culture, but once again it appears that historians disagree about the nature of magazines and their connection to society in general. To grasp the historical debate about magazines in this century, it is necessary to address some basic questions.

1. How can the rise of mass circulating magazines be explained?

2. What difference does the ability of editors and publishers have on the success of particular magazines?

3. What has been the relationship between advertising and magazines?

4. How did the appearance of radio, and later of television, affect the mass magazine's potential from the points of view of both publishers and advertisers?

5. Why have some magazines managed to survive despite changes in the communication environment?

6. As with other mass media, the key question in magazine history deals with the essential nature of magazines. What was that nature? Were magazines essentially products of culture or of economic forces? Was their purpose, in the context of the 20th century, basically informational or literary? Or, was it mainly perceived as a form of entertainment?

Chap. 21: Modern Advertising

A large part of advertising history has been written by histori¬ans with a business, social, cultural, or political axe to grind — and often while the historians were on the way to doing something else. As a result, many traditional concerns of history have not been ad¬dressed; and a number of fundamental questions remain unanswered.

1. The most basic question is this: Is the history of adver¬tising the history of business and economics, or is it the story of culture and society or some combination of the two?

2. Is adver¬tising the history of an institution that has steadily improved or that has been constantly in need of reform? Or, as Marxists have ar¬gued, is it the political, social, and economic sys¬tems that must be reformed?

3. Can the history of the United States be told, as historians favorable to advertising have suggested, in terms of business ac¬tivities with an occasional hand from advertising?

4. Questions about historians’ perspectives raise questions about how methodological approaches have affected the writing of adver¬tising history. Has the Developmental approach relied too heavily on often minor changes in the advertising process to the exclusion of environmental factors? Has the use of a “Great Man” approach granted too much im¬portance to decision makers and not enough to evolution within the process?

5. Have historians credited too much power to advertising to manipulate the pub¬lic? What evidence would be adequate to demonstrate such influ¬ence?

6. Have historians spent too much time in either defending or attacking advertising, and too little in examining the process of ad¬vertising and its place in soci¬ety?

Chap. 22: Public Relations, 1900-present

The topic of public relations has concerned writers and thinkers since the early 1920s. Yet relatively little historical research has been conducted on the subject. Furthermore, the field has only re¬cently been accepted as a professional area of study.

Despite the lack of research, or perhaps because of it, historians disagree on several fundamental questions. While attempting to examine the origins of public relations, some historians maintain that the beginnings were during the period of the Roman Empire, and that the American Revolution led to public relations practition¬ers such as Samuel Adams, Patrick Henry, and Thomas Jefferson. Others state that the railroad industry in the early 1900s laid the foundation. Still other historians suggest that the field was not de¬fined until the 1920s and did not become an organized, widespread profession until the 1930s.

The confusion appears to arise from a lack of definition over the term public relations. There¬fore, historians have shown consider¬able disagreement in their def¬initions of the term and in their in-terpretations. They confront a number of questions.

1. The first question they face is, What is meant by the phrase public relations? Did public relations in some form or fashion ex¬ist during the Ro¬man Empire? Or, if the field is defined as a profes¬sional science, did it originate before the 1900s?

2. Furthermore, how can the historian properly delineate the ar¬eas covered by such an extensive subject as “public relations”? Such a broad subject is difficult to centralize and often overlaps into other areas such as politics and business man¬agement and into related areas such as press agentry, publicity, and advertising. Is it possi¬ble for the historian to separate the subject of “public relations” from those areas? Should areas such as publicity and business manage¬ment properly be a part of historical studies in public relations? Can such functions as distributing press releases and organizing spe¬cial events be included as a part of professional public relations, or are these activities merely publicity attempts?

3. What was the essential difference between public relations and pub¬licity?

4. Can the evolution of public relations be credited to particular individuals such as Bernays and Lee, or should it be attributed to the entire cultural en¬vironment?

5. In particular, what role did economic considerations play?

6. In attempting to answer that question, how can the historian determine the intent of American business leaders? Did they hon¬estly see the value of social responsibility, or did they adopt public relations simply as a profit-making tactic?

Chap. 23: The Media in Transition, 1945-1974

The advent of television was a landmark event in the history of mass communication in the post-1945 decades. Rapidly accepted by all sectors of the American population, it surpassed all other media as the most-used and most-believed source of information. In the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s, it became a major source of American perceptions of society and politics and of pressing national and international crises—by means of both its news and entertainment content. Despite its relative newness as a mass media, historians are confronting a number of questions abut its nature and role in society. They have also taken an interest in the effect it has had on other media. They have, moreover, found great significance in studying media performance during these decades, which involve events and movements that have left their imprint on American life in many ways.

1. In which public matters during these years did the news media acquit themselves with the best distinction? Why?

2. Did television raise or lower cultural standards?

3. Has television fulfilled its great expectations as an information medium, or do the natural tendencies of an intensely popular mass medium in a free market system prevent it from doing so?

4. Can historians continue to interpret television journalism without defining precisely what it is?

5. How did other media affect early television and how did television affect other media?

6. What was the essential nature of the journalistic media? Is they best explained in terms of professional journalism practices and progress, as some historians have argued, or as biased and ideological tools?

7. When did the news media perform best—when they operated in a bal¬anced, detached manner or when jour¬nalists viewed their role as adversaries of other established institu¬tions such as government or business? Should the media have been an adversary? From where did that concept arise—from the news media or from other institutions?

8. In a democratic society, what should have been the preferred role?

9. If one believes it is an adversary role, what is the basis for de¬termining that a professionalized press serves the interests of the public better than elective government rep¬resentatives do?

10. Should historians bring an ideological perspec¬tive to their study of the past? Is it possible for them not to do so?

11. If one accepts an ideological role as appropriate for the press, as liberal historians did for the post-1945 period, on what basis does one determine what the preferred ideology should be? Is there any reason to believe that a liberal ideology, the type advocated by the majority of media historians, should be preferred over a moderate or conservative one?

Chap. 24: The Contemporary Media, 1974-present

The recent past is a difficult and uncertain area for historical inquiry. Restrictions on records and the fact that some of the crucial sources that historians use have yet to materialize for these years make the study of this time less than complete. Moreover, the absence of sufficient time lapse and the attachment one has to present convictions and passions make it more difficult yet for historians to practice the canons associated with historical scholarship. In some cases, the use of historical analogy and the search for continuities help to overcome these difficulties. In some other cases, the concern that historians have had in trying to determine the nature of the journalistic media in a definable past period has guided them in probing that same proposition as it relates to recent years. Regardless, media historians display an intense interest in recent journalism history. While they have provided some understanding of the media in the last several decades and have suggested interesting questions about it, their interest encourages speculation about the nature of historical study.

1. In terms of his media relations, to which two previous presidents can Ronald Reagan be best compared?

2. How did the government's treatment of journalists in the Grenada invasion (1983) and in the Persian Gulf War (1991) resemble that in earlier 20th-century conflicts?

3. How does the criticism of the news media in the 1970s and 1980s resemble that of the press in earlier periods?

4. Does the essential nature of the media appear to be different in the 1980s from what it was in the 1960s? The 1920s? The 1890s?

5. What effect has historians’ interest or involvement in recent events had on their ability to explain the recent past?

6. Is it appropriate for histo¬rians to be more deeply motivated by their interest in the present than in the past? Can the past be studied fairly if the historians’ pri¬mary interest springs from the present? If historians are deeply motivated by their interest in the present and are influenced by their own times, is it possible to pro¬vide accurate assessments of recent events, or must we wait until a length of time has passed?

7. What must be done for historians to provide meaningful assessments of events that occurred during their own lifetime and in which they may have been seriously involved?

8. Since journalism is sometimes referred to as instant history, what can be gained by asking the following: What are the similarities and differences between journalism and history?

Thursday, April 16, 2009

Class, Thursday, April 16

First, class will meet today as scheduled. Next, thank you for your patience and understanding as we move toward the end of the semester. I would like to apologize for any inconvenience I may have caused because of the responsibilities I have as chair of the department at TAMUK and as a professor who took an extra load because of the university's inability to hire another instructor to help with other courses which I had to take on.

Now, we are nearing the end of the course. Here is our "suggested" schedule as I see it for the rest of the year. I will try to stick to it to the best of my ability. Again, I ask for your patience and understanding. Be aware, no one who has completed their assignments and has attended class regularly is in danger of failing this class. If you have any questions about this, please contact me at the office: 361-593-3401 or on my cell: 361-813-7808. If I don't answer, leave a message and I will get back with you as soon as possible; I promise.

Now, here is the schedule:

Thursday, April 16 - (Class will meet). Selected students were scheduled to present book reviews. However, this will be toward the end of class. The class today will cover lectures from Chapters 11-18. There are no more blog posting responses. All blogs from now on are reviews.

• Thursday, April 23 - (Class will not meet. I will be in Houston with the TAMUK Advertising Team at the District 10 National Student Advertising Competition sponsored by the American Advertising Federation). Blog assignments on chapters 20-25 will be posted for you to review. You will be asked to review postings on the current state of the media. Your Final Project is due on this date.

• Thursday, April 30 (Class will meet). Selected students present book reviews. Selected final projects may be discussed. This is the day where we will let students give oral reviews of their books. Prepare for final exam. This is the last exam. It will be posted on Tuesday My 5 and due on exam date (which is different for both campuses).

• Thursday, May 7: (Class will meet). Selected students present book reviews and discuss final projects.


Final Project: Write a biography of a longtime media professional—still working or retired—from one of our area media outlets. You can find some biographical details in city and county records or on website of newspapers or broadcast media outlets. Other information can come from friends, acquaintances, co-workers and relatives. Much of the information will come directly from interviews with your subject or with people who knew your subject. The professor will provide a list of potential subjects. In addition to finding out the details of your subject’s life and professional career, you’re also interested in learning how the business was conducted during the time your subject was working in the profession. What was it like? What experiences did your subject have? How has the profession changed? The biography should be at least 8 pages long, word-processed and double-spaced. You may submit this electronically. Deadline for final project is April 23. You MORE THAN LIKELY WILL be asked to discuss your project with the class, depending on class progress through the semester. This project is worth 20 percent of your final grade.

Book Review: One book review is required. The assignment will be both written and oral (presentation before the class). The written review must be submitted in MS Word format. The presentation can be a power point, slide or overhead project presentation OR JUST AN ORAL DISCUSSION IN CLASS. A list of approved books will be provided later this semester. The professor must “approve” the book. The book must be a biography or autobiography of a journalist or the history of a newspaper or other journalistic organization or the function of a certain group in journalism and communication (i.e. Hispanics in the media, the Chicano newspapers of the 20th century, the Black press in history, etc.). This is worth 20 percent of your final grade.