Sunday, May 3, 2009

Final Exam

Here is the final exam. Please complete it as soon as possible. Cal me if you have any questions.

History of Journalism
Final Exam


I. Please circle, highlight or mark the correct answer.

Chapter 8

1. The first anti-slavery publications in the country appeared around:

(a) the end of the American Revolution, (b) 1817, (c) slave camps,
(d) western New York, (e) 1861.

2. William Lloyd Garrison’s Liberator:

(a) was an instant success, (b) never had a mass circulation,
(c) appealed only to whites, (d) contained only the work of white writers,
(e) was moderate in tone.

3. The first black newspaper in the country was:

(a) the Chicago Tribune, (b) the Liberator, (c) Freedom’s Journal,
(d) the Colored American, (e) the Afro-American.

4. The best-known “Fire-Eater” was:

(a) J.E.B. Stuart, (b) Frederick Jackson Turner,
(c) the governor of Virginia, (d) Robert Barnwell Rhett,
(e) hanged for spying for the North.
5. The Liberator editor who urged the immediate emancipation of the slaves was :

(a) W. E. B. DuBois, (b) Jonathan Barnwell, (c) John L. Sullivan,
(d) Douglas Frederick, (e) William Lloyd Garrison.

6. The editor of the North Star and the best-known black man in America at the time was:

(a) John D. Rockefeller, (b) John Brown, (c) Frederick Douglass,
(d) Homer Elwood, (e) Nat Turner.

Chapter 9

7. Of special prominence among the Civil War reporters was a group from the North known as the:

(a) Lincoln League, (b) Bohemian Brigade, (c) Lightening Club, (d) Patriotic Platoon, (e) Peep o’day Boys.

8. In reporting the Civil War, the major northern newspapers placed an emphasis on:

(a) accuracy, (b) news about slaves, (c) speed in coverage,
(d) fairness to all points of view, (e) stories about sex and violence.

9. Southern newspapers during the Civil War were plagued by:

(a) grasshoppers, (b) abolitionists, (c) manpower shortages,
(d) women suffragists, (e) an overabundance of news.

10. Among the leading illustrated publications covering the Civil War was:

(a) Field and stream, (b) Battlefield Illustrated, (c) Saturday Evening Post, (d) Photo Review, (e) Harper’s Weekly.

11. The reporter whose story about the Battle of Antietam is known as one of the best reports of the Civil War was:

(a) Thomas Nast, (b) Ernie Pyle, (c) Jane Grey Swisshelm,
(d) George Smalley, (e) Stephen Crane.

12. Mathew Brady became famous for his Civil War:

(a) battle reports, (b) drawings, (c) poems, (d) cartoons, (e) photographs.

Chapter 10

13. The first American Indian newspaper was the:

(a) Indian Times, (b) Cherokee Phoenix, (c) Okefenokee News,
(d) Oklahoma Eagle, (e) Cochise Chronicle.

14. The most prominent advocate of westward migration from Atlantic seaboard cities was:

(a) William Lloyd Garrison, (b) Benjamin Day, (c) James Gordon Bennett,
(d) Henry Raymond, (e) Horace Greeley.

15. The Tombstone, Ariz., newspaper that was noted for its coverage of controversies involving cowboys and business interests was the:

(a) Earp Chronicle, (b) Epitaph, (c) Arizona Marker,
(d) Arizona Argus, (e) El Boracho de Arizona

16. The first printing that was done in the Western Hemisphere, on a press set up in 1535, was:

(a) part of an effort to promote the Colombian Revolution, (b) in Ontario, Canada,
(c) in defiance of Portuguese authority, (d) in the midst of the Argentina gold rush, (e) in the Spanish language in what is now Mexico City.

17. Along with Mark Twain, one of the best known humorists of frontier journalism was:

(a) Ralph McGill, (b) Damon Runyon, (c) James Thurber,
(d) Garrison Keillor, (e) Bill Nye.

18. Probably the biggest news event of the 19th century involving American Indians was the:

(a) Wounded Knee massacre, (b) Battle of the Little Big Horn,
(c) execution of Geronimo, (d) defeat of Sitting Bull at Manassas,
(e) adoption of the Indian Removal Treaty of 1888.

Chapter 11

19. In the 1870s the pre-eminent model of personal journalism was the editor of the New York Sun noted for his interesting writing style, he was:

(a) Joseph Pulitzer, (b) Ernest Pyle, (c) Charles Dana,
(d) James G. Blaine, (e) Chester Arthur.

20. Many publishers in the 1870s and 1880s believed that newspapers had freed themselves from the influence of politicians only to come under the influence of

(a) chain newspaper owners, (b) local vigilante groups, (c) local crime syndicates, (d) social reformers, (e) advertisers.

21. The corrupt political machine exposed by the New York Times was the:

(a) Albany Regency, (b) Know-Nothings, (c) Teapot Club,
(d) Tweed Ring, (e) Firemen’s Assurance Association.

22. In the 1870s the arrangement by which reporters were paid according to the length of their stories was known as the:

(a) space system, (b) pay-as-you-write rate, (c) no-words/no-pay plan,
(d) reporting beat scale, (e) cooperative rate.

Chapter 12

23. The fast typesetting machine invented by Ottmar Mergenthaler was the:

(a) Telecompositor, (b) Offsetter, (c) Typomatic, (d) Linotype, (e) Fontgraphic.

24. The newspaper that Joseph Pulitzer bought in 1883 and turned into a huge success was the:

(a) Philadelphia Inquirier, (b) Boston Star, (c) Washington Post,
(d) New York World, (e) Los Angeles Examiner.

25. The newspaper sensationalism of the 1890s that was characterized by such features as scare headlines and bold display of news was known as :

(a) muckraking, (b) rumor mongering, (c) yellow journalism,
(d) Gonzo Journalism (e) tabloid journalism.

26. The journalistic giant who is usually credited with founding “New Journalism” was:

(a) Horace Greeley, (b) Samuel Hopkins Adams, (c) Theodore Roosevelt,
(d) Grover Cleveland Alexander, (e) Joseph Pulitzer.

27. The publisher of the New York Journal who especially emphasized what he called “jounalism of action” was:

(a) Horace Greeley, (b) William Randolph Hearst, (c) Grover Cleveland Alexander,
(d) Samuel Hopkins Adams, (e) Theodore Dreiser.

28. The war that newspapers sometimes are blamed for helping start in 1898 was :

(a) the Mexican War, (b) World War I, (c) the Spanish-American War,
(d) the Crimean War, (e) the Boer War. (f) The Texas Revolution

29. The cheap books, often about adventures in the American West, that were especially popular in the late 1800s were known as:

(a) yellow westerns, (b) penny fiction, (c) pulp stories, (d) dime novels, (e) Babcock’s books.

Chapter 13

30. One of the leading magazine publishing centers in 18th-century America was:

(a) Richmond, (b) Philadelphia, (c) Pittsburgh, (d) Washington, D. C., (e) Trenton.

31. The “ground-breaking” pioneer publication in sports journalism appearing in 1829 was:

(a) the Saturday Evening Post, (b) the American Bicycling Journal,
(c) Sports Illustrated, (d) American Turf Register and Sporting Magazine,
(e) Readers’ Digest.

32. The first American magazine to reach a circulation of a million was:

(a) Time, (b) Sports Illustrated, (c) Ladies Home Journal,
(d) Child’s Weekly Visitor, (e) Gentleman’s Leisure.

33. Amelia Bloomer published Lily, the first American

(a) horticultural magazine, (b) woman’s suffrage magazine, (c) woman’s fashion magazine, (d) woman’s home magazine, (e) gardening magazine.

34. By the mid 19th century the center of magazine publishing was:

(a) Boston, (b) New York, (c) Philadelphia, (d) Chicago, (e) Washington, D. C.

35. Near the end of the 19th century, free-lance writers for magazines were known as:

(a) space writers, (b) literary hacks, (c) magazinists, (d) writers for hire

Chapter 14

36. The leading colonial figure in improving advertising was :

(a) James Madison, (b) Paul Revere, (c) Benjamin Franklin,
(d) Cotton Mather, (e) Albert Lasker. (f) George Washington

37. The owner of the New York Ledger who began to publish stories and advertising aimed directly at women was :

(a) Joseph Pulitzer, (b) Thomas Acquinas, (c) James Buchanan,
(d) William Howard Russell, (e) Robert Bonner.

38. One of the most important developments in advertising in the middle of the 19th century was the appearance of:

(a) in-house art directors, (b) four-color newspaper ads, (c) advertising charge accounts,
(d) advertising agencies, (e) local advertiser-publisher associations.

39. The originator of the practice of “space-wholesaling” was:

(a) Robert Lincoln, (b) George P. Rowell, (c) Robert B. Rhett,
(d) Barnard Montgomery, (e) X. Hagan Mitchell (f) Volney Palmer

40. The pioneer promotional genius who had great success with such entertainment acts as “Tom Thumb” and Jenny Lind was:

(a) born in Brazil, rather than Washington, D.C., as he claimed,
(b) Lincoln Levy, the grandson of George Washington,
(c) P.T. Barnum,
(d) born on July 4, 1776,
(e) Thomas X. Jefferson.

41. The pioneer advertising “agent” normally is considered to have been:

(a) Braxton Bragg, (b) Horatio Seymour, (c) William Westmoreland,
(d) James K. Polk, (e) Volney Palmer. (f) George Rowell

Chapter 15

42. Among American media in the first few years of the 20th century, newspapers, according to the textbook, could be characterized as:

(a) king, (b) declining in audience share, (c) the weakest of the three major media,
(d) the product of immigration, (e) falling behind the times.
43. The most famous newspaper photograph of the 1920s:

(a) showed the electrocution of Ruth Snyder,
(b) brought national attention to the conditions of the Dust Bowl,
(c) was shot with a miniature “Brownie” camera,
(d) was of the wreck of the Titanic,
(e) helped bring about the impeachment of President Warren Harding.

44. One of the prominent trends in newspaper ownership in the 20th century was:

(a) an arrangement in which most owners wrote their editorials,
(b) a decline in the selling price of newspaper companies,
(c) takeover by foreign investors,
(d) the growth of chain newspapers,
(e) a decline in absentee ownership.

45. A new approach to news coverage that appeared during the New Deal was:

(a) beat reporting, (b) interpretative reporting, (c) international correspondence, (d) area-saturation, (e) the Schlieffen plan.

46. A new newspaper design that became popular in the 1920s was:

(a) modular layout, (b) vertical layout, (c) the integrated multi-box,
(d) four-cover color, (e) the tabloid.

47. A journalistic practice that gained increasing nationwide acceptance in the first part of the 20th century was:

(a) subjectivism, (b) ambush interviewing, (c) New Journalism,
(d) objectivity, (e) story inversion.

Chapter 16

48. The person who gave the name “muckraking” to reform journalism was :

(a) President Theodore Roosevelt, (b) Charles Anderson Dana,
(c) Sen. William Bartlett of Oklahoma, (d) Gov. Huey Long of Louisiana,
(e) Sarah Mills Ogden. (f) Ronald Reagan

49. Usually credited with starting the muckraking movement was:

(a) Grover Cleveland, (b) a group of writers known as the Boston Rakes,
(c) Nelson Rockefeller, (d) Minneapolis mayor Robert McCormick,
(e) Ida Tarbell’s exposé of Standard Oil.

50. The book that exposed the nauseating conditions of the meat-packing industry was Upton Sinclair’s

(a) Chicago Exposed, (b) The Stockyards, (c) Silent Spring,
(d) Cattle Chattel, (e) The Jungle. (f) The Miracle Woker

51. Muckraking was part of the:

(a) era of Yellow Journalism, (b) patent medicine industry’s efforts to forestall regulation,
(c) Progressive movement, (d) U.S. Senate’s efforts to “shame the cities,”
(e) tabloid journalism movement.

52. The leading muckraking magazine was:

(a) Life, (b) McClure’s, (c) Reader’s Digest, (d) Henrietta’s, (e) Spotlight.

Chapter 17

53. The Chicago Tribune reporter who was aboard a ship that a German submarine sank in 1917 and wrote a first-hand account of the attack was:

(a) P. T. Beauregard, (b) Allan “Submarine” Smith, (c) Floyd Gibbons,
(d) Frederick Blivens, (e) Henry “Hot Spot” Spragens.

54. The editor of the militant black newspaper The Crisis was:

(a) Frederick Douglass, (b) Eldridge Cleaver, (c) Jacques Zimmerman,
(d) Westbrook Pegler, (e) W.E.B. DuBois. (f) Eldridge Cleaver

55. The American reporter who covered the Russian Revolution, became a Bolshevik supporter, wrote the book Ten Days That Shook the World, and was the subject of the movie 1981 Reds was:

(a) David Rafshoon, (b) Philip S. Ramsey, (c) Harold “Red” Reasoner,
(d) Whitelaw Reeves, (e) John Reed. (f) Dan Rather

56. The organization headed by George Creel that helped to mobilize public support of the American effort during World War I was the:

(a) War Publicity Office, (b) War Correspondents Group, (c) American Morale Association,
(d) Committee on Public Information, (e) War News Agency.

57. The government agency during World War II that provided government publicity and was headed by Elmer Davis was the:

(a) War Coverage Committee, (b) Office of War Information,
(c) Military Correspondence Committee, (d) War News Agency,
(e) United States News Bureau.

Chapter 18

58. The best-known early experimenter with radio technology was:

(a) Eric Severeid, (b) John J. Pershing, (c) Guglielmo Marconi, (d) Herbert Hoover

59. The pioneer executive who developed the NBC network was:

(a) David Sarnoff, (b) Aaron Spelling, (c) Henry Harrison Ford, (d) George Creel,

60. Commercial radio’s broadcasting of sports:

(a) was hampered by the Chicago Black Sox scandal,
(b) began in the 1920s,
(c) was limited to one hour a day during World War II,
(d) was suspended after boxer Jesse Jenkins died in a fight in 1932,
(e) was suspended for one year after the payola scandals.

61. The event in 1912 that catapulted radio technology into national prominence was the:

(a) 1912 baseball World Series,
(b) presidential election between Taft and Wilson,
(c) sinking of the Titanic,
(d) Pullman strike,
(e) broadcast of Caruso’s Chicago performance in Candide.

62. The first scheduled radio broadcast normally is considered to have been KDKA’s broadcast of:

(a) FDR’s fireside chats, (b) bombing attacks on London,
(c) the Army-Navy football game of 1914, (d) the crash of the Hindenburg,
(e) the 1920 presidential election returns. (f) Local news mainly.

63. The rule that broadcasting must operate in the “public interest, convenience and necessity” was established:

(a) through the efforts of lobbyists for women’s right to vote,
(b) to prevent advertisers from monopolizing the airwaves,
(c) as part of the Sherman Antitrust Act,
(d) by the Radio Act of 1927,
(e) at the request of the NAACP.

64. Edwin H. Armstrong invented:

(a) FM radio, (b) the vacuum tube, (c) the radio news program, (d) Stereo technology

65. What is highly regarded as radio’s most significant and memorable event occurred when:

(a) the Titanic sunk in 1927.
(b) Pearl Harbor was attacked in 1941
(c) Orson Welles broadcast of H.G. Wells’ “War of the World” in a radio play on Oct. 30, 1938.
(d) President’s Roosevelt’s soothing “Fireside Chats” during the Great Depression.
(e) Eric Severeid’s stellar reporting from Europe during WW II.

66. All but which of the following is considered one of radio’s all-time newsmen and commentators during its heyday?

(a) Edward R. Morrow, (b) Roy Larsen (c) Lowell Thomas
(d) Walter Winchell (e) Will Rogers (f) Hans Von Kaltenburg

67. The man who dubbed himself as “The Father of Radio” was:

(a) Philo Farnsworth, (b) David Sarnoff, (c) Samuel D. Morse, (d) Lee De Forrest

68. Programming in they heyday of radio was:

(a) national in scope, much like TV now,
(b) included mainly local radio stations,
(c) was controlled by the govdernment,
(d) was far superior to today’s satellite banter and programming.

Chapter 19

69. The first newspaper comic strip was:

(a) banned from New York City’s public schools,
(b) “Little Orphan Annie,”
(c) later published in book form titled The Adventures of the Bowery Boys,
(d) “Captains Courageous,”
(e) “The Yellow Kid.”

70. The first disc jockey radio program:

(a) appeared in the 1960s,
(b) was Al Jarvis’ Make Believe Ballroom,
(c) was banned because of profanity,
(d) used only live music,
(e) failed because record companies refused to let their music be played on the radio.
(f) was Dick Clark’s American Bandstand

71. The earliest movie theaters for showing films were called:

(a) vaudevillas, (b) paradisios, (c) movie palaces, (d) nickelodeons, (e) cinema halls.

72. Most of the basic film techniques used today were developed:

(a) during the silent film era,
(b) during World War II,
(c) during the 1960s and 1970s,
(d) as a result of new technologies associated with television,
(e) as a result of space age technology.

73. A major breakthrough for African Americans in entertainment came in 1968 when the barrier against blacks starring in their own TV shows was broken by:

(a) Bill Cosby, (b) Paul Robeson, (c) Jackie Robinson, (d) Diahann Carroll,

74. The great singer whose recording in 1902 opened recorded music for classical music was:

(a) Marian Anderson,
(b) Leonard Bernstein,
(c) Enrico Caruso,
(d) Bing Crosby,
(e) Florence Nightingale.
(f) Erasmo Seguro

75. The first full-length “talkie” film starred:

(a) Elizabeth Taylor in “Giant,”
(b) Bing Crosby in “Navidad Blance,”
(c) W. C. Fields in “You’re Kidding!”
(d) Greta Garbo in “Burlesquse,”
(e) Al Jolson in “The Jazz Singer,”
(f) Ramon Navarro in “Ben Hur.”

76. The advent of television as a popular medium was delayed by:

(a) the popularity of the radio in the 1930s,
(b) World War II,
(c) the World’s Fair of 1939,
(d) the tensions of the Cold War,
(e) censorship.

77. One of the defining elements of the 1950s was:

(a) The convergence of radio stars to TV stars, instantly.
(b) The slapstick humor of radio was great for TV.
(c) The emergence of rock ‘n’ roll and Elvis Presley
(d) The Beattles rock invasion

78. The first national network or any kind, radio or television, was established by:

(a) RCA, (b)ABC, (c) Mutual, (d) CBS, (d) Humble

Chapter 20

78. In 1900, the magazine that had built up the largest circulation in the nation by using “success stories” was:

(a) losing almost $1,000,000 per issue,
(b) changing its emphasis to literature,
(c) Frank Leslie’s Illustrated Weekly,
(d) sold to the Harper Brothers publishing house,
(e) McClure’s.

79. The publisher who founded both Ladies Home Journal and Saturday Evening Post was:

(a) Joseph Pulitzer, (b) Cyrus Curtis, (c) William Randolph Hearst, (d) Hope Thompson Rush

80. Reader’s Digest was founded in 1922 :

(a) to espouse prohibition,
(b) as a tax shelter for the Rockefellers,
(c) to support the political goals of Nelson Algren,
(d) by the Jensen brothers as a means of supplementing their small printing income,
(e) by college dropout DeWitt Wallace.

81. The photo-oriented magazine introduced in 1935 was :

(a) Picture Weekly, (b) Parade, (c) Pageant, (d) Life, (e) Family Weekly.

82. The magazine founded in 1923 by Henry Luce and Briton Hadden with an emphasis on brief news items was:

(a) Time, (b) People, (c) Reader’s Digest, (d) Newsweek, (e) New Yorker.

83. In the 1950s and 1960s, the economic problems that mass magazines were facing were caused primarily by:

(a) miscalculations of production costs,
(b) television’s competition for advertising,
(c) a prolonged national recession,
(d) rising salaries for corporate executives,
(e) declining circulation numbers.

Chapter 21

84. The three “dimensions” of advertising that have been most important in modern advertising were:

(a) originated by P.T. Barnum,
(b) wealth, production, and consumption,
(c) codified by the 1923 Advertising Code of Ethics,
(d) economic, communicative, and societal,
(e) incorporated into federal regulations in 1917 by the Accuracy in Advertising Law.
(f) 1. We want your money, 2. Money is king, 3. Invest their money well.

85. John E. Kennedy (not the president) popularized the approach to advertising that was known as:

(a) point of sale, (b) salesmanship in print, (c) subliminal seduction, (d) prosperity appeal.

86. During the Great Depression, advertising :

(a) increased by almost 200%,
(b) was blamed by some critics for the economic problems,
(c) was eliminated from daytime radio programs,
(d) emphasized escapism rather than realism,
(e) avoided referring to the severe conditions that most consumers faced.

87. The Lord & Thomas executive who many historians consider to be the father of modern advertising was:

(a) P.T. Barnum, (b) Herbert Hoover, (c) George Creel, (d) Doyle Ogilvy, (e) Albert Lasker.

88. Claude Hopkins’ “shot from guns” slogan for Quaker puffed rice was an early example of an advertising approach known as:

(a) unique selling proposition,
(b) acceptable exaggeration,
(c) imagery manipulation,
(d) soft-sell,
(e) mood-creation technique.

89. In 1911 Printer’s Ink magazine proposed a model statute, that was widely adopted, to:

(a) standardize magazine advertising rates
(b) control false and deceptive advertising,
(c) standardize ink colors in magazine advertisements,
(d) regulate advertising agency contracts,
(e) codify state laws regulating national advertisers.

Chapter 22

90. The person usually considered “the Father of Public Relations” was :

(a) Ivy Lee, (b) P. T. Barnum, (c) Cecil B. DeMille, (d) Ronald Reagan, (e) George Patton.

91. Among the early presidents to stress publicity was :

(a) U. S. Grant, (b) Grover Cleveland, (c) Theodore Roosevelt, (d) Benjamin Harrison

92. The influential public relations practitioner who began using psychology in his work and tried to raise the ethical standards of PR activities was :

(a) Sigmund Freud, (b) Will Rogers, (c) Joseph Pulitzer, (d) Edward Bernays,

Chapter 23

93. The best-known and most distinguished of the early television journalists was:

(a) Marguerite Higgins, (b) Will Rogers, (c) Edward R. Murrow, (d) William T. Stead.

94. In the 1950s, the rise of Senator Joseph R. McCarthy and “McCarthyism” and the communist scare showed that:

(a) a public figure could gain notoriety without media attention,
(b) to gain notoriety one had to own media properties,
(c) the uncritical media could be manipulated,
(d) the press was overly critical of public figures,
(e) the radio was more important than newspapers in reporting Washington news.

95. The documents published by the press that indicated that the Defense Department may not have been frank in revealing its intentions in Vietnam were:

(a) leaked by Gen. William Westmoreland,
(b) known as the Pentagon Papers,
(c) accidentally thrown into a wastepaper basket by a secretary,
(d) provided to newspapers by a Vietnam embassy official,
(e) the Johnson Directives.

96. The CBS program on Vietnam that created the greatest furor:

(a) was underwritten by the Vietnamese government,
(b) was “The Selling of the Pentagon,”
(c) resulted in CBS having its broad-casting license revoked,
(d) violated the “Fairness in Broadcasting Doctrine,”
(e) was See It Now.

Chapter 24

97. Cable News Network (CNN) revolutionized the news industry when it was launched in 1980:

(a) as a subsidiary of CBS,
(b) by USA Today,
(c) to compete with an international television news cable system begun by the Soviet Union,
(d) to provide 24-hour coverage of the summer Olympics,
(e) by Ted Turner.

98. During Ronald Reagan’s presidency, journalists protested:

(a) Reagan’s preemption of evening news slots for his televised speeches to the nation,
(b) government restrictions on coverage of the invasion of Grenada,
(c) the Super Bowl’s preemption of evening news time slots,
(d) Reagan’s refusal to hold press conferences,
(e) Reagan’s efforts to eliminate the Fairness Doctrine.

Chapter 25

99. In the 2000 presidential election:

(a) television networks were criticized for questionable announcements of the winner on election night,
(b) the New York Times for the first time in its history endorsed the Republican candidate,
(c) NBC was criticized for pre-empting a presidential debate to televise the baseball World Series, (d) Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi served as a commentator on CNN,
(e) Disney Chairman Michael Eisenstein was criticized for distributing programming favoring third-party candidate Ralph Nader.

100. The CBS news anchor who was widely criticized in 2004 for a report on 60 Minutes Wednesday dealing George Bush’s service in the Air National Guard was:

(a) Peter Jennings,
(b) Katie Couric,
(c) Dan Rather,
(d) Walter Cronkite,
(e) Ted Koppel.

Have a Nice Summer!
Don’t forget to register soon for Summer 09 and Fall 09 Courses

Dr. Manuel Flores

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