Sunday, February 8, 2009

Chapter 4 Assignment - (Due Feb. 17)

Assignment 1: On Chapter 4 - The Revolutionary Press (1765-1783) there are several very revealing historical and philosophical accounts of the growth of journalism in the United States. Please examine the following issues by writing a short statement of how impacted not only the growth of our county, but the concept of a revolutionary press reviewed in this chapter.

(1) How are the philosophers John Locke and Baron Charles Montesquieu linked to the development of the American experience and the revolutionary press?
(2) The Stamp Act required all legal documents, permits, commercial contracts, newspapers, wills, pamphlets, and playing cards in the colonies to carry a tax stamp. It was part of an economic program directly affecting colonial policy that was initiated in response to Britain’s greatly increased national debt incurred during the British victory in the Seven Years War (the North American theater of the war was referred to as the French and Indian War). The revolt against this act, essentially the cry of taxation without representation, helped fuel the first of the revolutionary press. Explain how?
(3) Ben Franklin had an enormous impact on the evolution of journalism in the United States, and there fore the world. In 1754 he created the first editorial cartoon. It was revived during the revolt against the Stamp Act. Review the cartoon and explain what it meant.
(4) Between 1719 and 1786 the revolutionary press in the colonies continued to grow. Which newspaper developed the highest circulation during that period?
(5) Explain what the Sons of Liberty used to do to American Tories, those (and they were the majority) who opposed the formation of a new and independent country.
(6) Thomas Paine was the preeminent writer of the revolutionary press. What did he write and which revolutionary newspaper published his work? What is the famous phrase that started his "American Crisis" piece. What does the term "scared rabbits" have to do with this piece of literature?
(7) In the heat of battle, how did Gen. George Washington keep his troops informed?
(8) The press certainly had a role in developing a new American nation. Read the last paragraph in Chapter 4 and describe your feelings and opinions about the press' role in changing society?

Please email your answers to me

1 comment:

  1. Jacqueline Hutton
    1. They were associated philosophers of the revolutionary press and the revolution because of their ideas regarding government and the rights the citizens. The Spirit of Laws is a treaty on political theory first published anonymously by Charles de Secondat, Baron de Montesquieu in 1748 Originally published anonymously because Montesquieu works were subject to censorship, like a lot of works were. They both encouraged separation of power. Locke's political theory was founded on social contract theory. In a natural state all people were equal and independent, and everyone had a natural right to defend his “life, health, liberty, or possessions.” Locke also supported governmental of powers and believed that revolution is not only a right but an obligation.
    2. The Stamp Act of 1765 caused many citizens to form groups like the Sons of Liberty. The idea of taxing the colonial citizens without representation in parliament caused many citizens to rebel the Act. Ben Franklin and his brother printed pamphlets, essays and newspapers urging citizens to protest the Act. The revolutionary press provided citizens with information on government and its policies. By 1750, 14 weekly newspapers were published in the six largest colonies. The largest of the newspapers could be published up to three times per week.
    3. The Join Or Die cartoon was the first political cartoon. The cartoon snake divided into eight sections, each representing the eight colonies. The meaning behind the revival (the original was printed in 1754 and the Stamp Act was eleven years later) was unity. There was a superstition in which a snake cut in two will come to life if joined before sunset.
    4. Philadelphia Gazette had the highest circulation at this time.
    5. The Tories were thought responsible for cutting down the Liberty Poles in certain towns which had been erected by the Sons of Liberty. The American Tories were made to kiss the pole to humiliate them. Tax collectors witnesses mock hangings from these poles of their own selves.
    6. These are the times that try men's souls: The summer soldier and the sunshine patriot will, in this crisis, shrink from the service of their country; but he that stands it now, deserves the love and thanks of man and woman. Tyranny, like hell, is not easily conquered; yet we have this consolation with us, the harder the conflict, the more glorious the triumph. What we obtain too cheap, we esteem too lightly: it is dearness only that gives everything its value.” Washington had this read to his troops to increase their moral.
    7. Washington kept his troops informed by newspapers.
    8. They would not have happened without each other. Normal people want to express their opinions and newspapers were a great way for ideas to be shared between colonist. Many colonist and soliders were illiterate but they were able to obtain the information orally, just like how Washington’s troops could not read for the most part but the American Crisis essay was read aloud.